A Panel at the inaugural Global Shrimp Forum (GSF) in September 2022 reflected on production trends and markets for the increase in volumes. The Global Shrimp Forum (GSF) held recently from September 7- 8 in Utrecht, the Netherlands dedicated a half-day session on the latest in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming. Robins McIntosh, Executive Vice President, Charoen Pokphand Foods(CPF) Public Company, said that the rise in black tiger shrimp production in several countries, particularly in China, was due largely to the availability of CPF’s domesticated specific pathogen free (SPF) broodstock. On the revitalisation of black tiger shrimp farming in India, Dhaval Contractor, Partner, Vaishnavi Aquatech, said that the increase in India has been with post larvae from imported Moana broodstock. The future post larvae will be produced at its new broodstock multiplication centre (BMC) which began operations on September 2,2022.
Demand has been escalating in India since the company introduced SPF black tiger post larvae in 2021. Dhavalsaid that Vaishnavi Aquatech is one of the companies approved by the Coastal Aquaculture Authority to import SPF black tiger broodstock into India. It started with an initial supply of 300 million post larvae to farms in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat and the company has expanded tosix hatcheries in 2022. Vaishnavi Aquatech has already sold one billion post larvae in 2022. An associated company, Shree Sai Krupa Aquaculture runs several shrimp farms in Gujarat.
The resurgence in black tiger farming is not only due tothe new genetics but also because black tiger shrimp tolerates Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) and white faeces syndrome (WFS) better than the vannamei shrimp; in addition, in India, it is also tolerant against running mortality syndrome. Black tiger shrimp has also found its place during the hot summer months in Gujarat where high temperatures prevented the farming of vannamei shrimp. McIntosh said, “Other push factors are higher market valueand that its farming requires less capex.” He added that at present one disadvantage is that growth lines of new vannamei lines, exceed that of black tiger shrimp lines.
On the sidelines of the session, Dhaval emphasised that with these SPF black tiger shrimp post larvae, farmers in Gujarat now have the possibility to have a second crop as well. Furthermore, farmers in Odisha and West Bengal have indicated interest in black tiger shrimp farming. He added that ponds in South Andhra Pradesh with high salinity are suited for black tiger shrimp farming and thel ow salinity ponds in northern districts of Andhra Pradesh are more suitable for vannamei shrimp farming
McIntosh said that “taming the tiger” took several generations, with initial survivals at 30% and improving to 85% for the latest stocks, which also turned in low co efficient of variations. Selective breeding of CPF’s SPF black tiger shrimp began in 2014 and rose from an average daily growth (ADG) of 0.3g in 2013 to 0.50g in2021 and survival rates increasing from 81% to 93% by2021.There has been progress in the Moana black tiger genetics since its first introduction to India in 2008-2009 and in2021-2022 when compared against post larvae of wild broodstock. According to Dhaval, the Moana genetics is now the 19th generation reaching improved growth through selective breeding to 50g in 120 days. The AWG (average weekly growth) is 4g (Table 1)
McIntosh expects a total global production increase by 42% to 546,000 tonnes of black tiger shrimp in 2021 from 382,000 tonnes in 2019. The increase in volume is due to the domesticated stocks in China, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Madagascar. In China, production may reach or exceed 180,000 tonnes in 2022 from the previous volume of only 100,000 tonnes in 2019. The good post larvae demand in China where CPF has 90% market share for its SPF broodstock is because of the premium prices accorded to black tiger shrimp as compared to the large size vannamei shrimp.
In a panel on production, Le Van Quang, Minh Phu Seafoods CEO, said that the company expects to sell 50,000 tonnes of black tiger shrimp while the nationwide black tiger shrimp production is 20% of total farmed shrimp production which was estimated at 900,000 tonnes in 2021.
In India, Dhaval calculated production volumes based on post larvae used: 34,000 tonnes for the 2021-2022 fiscal year (April 1, 2021-March 30, 2022) and expected volumes of 70,000 tonnes for the 2022-2023 period. (April 1, 2022-March 30, 2023). These were based on post larvae from Moana and Unima (Madagascar) broodstocks.
Willem van der Pijl, Shrimp Insights, session moderator and GSF co-organiser, asked whether the renewed production of black tiger not only by traditional farms but also semi-intensive farms as an alternative species (such as in Gujarat) will lead to this shrimp to be in competition with large vannamei shrimp as a premium species. A panel of producers and buyers discussed current markets for the shrimp and what can be expected in the future. While the demand is for premium price large black tiger shrimp, Heiko Lenk, Lenk Frozen Foods, said that firstly, the premium price is subjective – buyers could absorb a €3/kg premium. Large black tiger is usually for the food service segment. For Mathias Ismail, R&O Seafood Gastronomy, its organic and large Madagascan black tiger shrimp is destined for the niche gastronomy market and is specific in colour and taste. “We need to remember also that massive production works against the equilibrium for a niche market,” said Mathias.